India facts

OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of India, Bharat
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Federal republic
CAPITAL: New Delhi
POPULATION: 1,236,344,631
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: Hindi, English, 21 others
MONEY: Rupee
AREA: 3,287,590 square kilometres
MAJOR MOUNTAIN RANGE: Himalaya
MAJOR RIVERS: Ganges, Yamuna, Indus, Brahmaputra
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India-facts

India’s geography

India is part of the continent of Asia. Most of India forms a peninsula, jutting out into the ocean. The southeast is bordered by the Bay of Bengal, and the southwest is bordered by the Arabian Sea. The Himalayas – the world’s highest mountain range – rise in the north of the country.

India-facts

India’s terrain varies widely, from the Thar Desert in the west to jungles in the northeast. A fertile area called the Ganges Plain covers much of northern India. This formation was created from soil that was deposited by rivers running from the Himalayas. In some places, this layer of silt is over 7,620m deep.

Indian people & culture

Society throughout India is divided into social ranks, called castes. Caste is determined by birth and there is almost no way to change it. High castes include priests, landowners and soldiers. So-called Untouchables have no caste and do the most menial jobs.

India is a very spiritual country. It has no official religion, but more than 80 percent of Indians are Hindu. About 13 percent are Muslim. Other religions include Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, which all began in India.


India’s nature

For thousands of years, since the Hindu religion first evolved, respect for animal life has been an important part of Indians’ beliefs. Cows in particular are sacred and cannot be harmed. They are even allowed to wander through city streets, which often causes traffic jams!

India-facts

India’s varied climate zones support about 65,000 animal species, including elephants, pythons, river dolphins and rhinos, and 12,000 types of flowering plants. It is the only country in the world with both lions and tigers. It’s also a bird watcher’s paradise.

On the coast of the Bay of Bengal is the Sundarbans, the world’s largest mangrove forest. Here, tigers swim in the same rivers as dolphins, sea turtles, sharks and saltwater crocodiles. This unique landscape is constantly under threat as sea levels rise and humans hunt illegally, and clear trees for firewood.

The Himalayas provide a home for some of India’s rarest animals and plants. The most elusive animal is the snow leopard. Bears and black buck live lower down, and in the northeast, the tiger and one-horned rhinoceros can be found.


Indian government and economy

India’s parliamentary government was inherited from the British. After independence in 1947, one party, the Congress Party, and one family, the Nehru family, dominated politics in India for decades. Now, however, many parties compete for elected positions.

India’s economy is growing so fast that experts predict it will soon become one of the world’s leading markets.


Indian history

India’s earliest known civilization arose about 5,000 years ago on the Indus River in what is now Pakistan. Archaeologists uncovered the remains of two huge cities with brick houses, piped water and sewer systems. Nobody knows why, but these cities, called Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, were abandoned in 1700 B.C.

India-facts

The Aryan people were farmers from Central Asia who arrived in India around 1500 B.C. They spoke Sanskrit, one of the world’s oldest known languages. The Vedic Scriptures, writings that form the basis of the Hindu religion, were written during the Aryan reign.

In the 200-year reign of the Gupta Empire, starting in the fourth century A.D., arts, crafts, and sciences flourished. During this time, the Indian astronomer Aryabhatta determined that the Earth revolved around the sun. This was long before the Western world accepted the theory.

Beginning in the 16th century, following a series of invasions by Muslim forces, a Mongol leader named Babur founded the Mughal Empire. The Mongols oversaw a golden age of art, literature and architecture in India between 1527 and 1707. They built roads, mosques, gardens and enormous tombs, including the grand Taj Mahal.

India-facts

In the late 1400s, Europeans arrived in India and began setting up trading companies. In 1757, Britain gained control over most of the country. Uprisings against British rule began in 1856. In 1920, the famous Mahatma Gandhi began nonviolent protests to push the British out. In 1947, India had independence.

Photos an illustrations: Getty Images UK Words from kids.nationalgeographic.com Figures accurate at time of publication, March 2015

 

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COMMENTS

  • lily

    I really was born in India!!!!!!(:

  • Lioness

    This was quite helpful but not everything i wanted and a bit hard to understand

  • jewels

    not good sorry I just wanted to know if its ground was dessert jungle or rainforest

  • ACooper

    It helped so much with my homework thanks.

  • MISBAH

    thank yo sooo much for this website my homewrk was to do a factfile in my book about india this helped soooo much !!

  • Bored_Kid

    It made geography a bit better

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    Awesome India.

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  • Athena565

    SO COOL!

  • krishan_jamal

    its the Mughals not mongals get your history straight please

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    My family is on the second stage of their travels after a month in India. Taj Mahal, forts, camel safari, zip wire amongst their exploits so far. Becky 10 and Noah 7 love their Nat Geo Kids magazine and it certainly influenced their choices of where to go on their amazing adventure around the world. China now with the Great Wall being first priority.Thailand next followed by Australia New Zealand South America North America South America again and then home at the end of May.

  • Barbara

    My granddaughter - an avid Nat Geo fan and family have just spent a fabulous month in India starting in Delhi. They have visited the Taj Mahal several forts and seen much wild life. A camel safari in the desert was a particular highlight. Nat Geo has proved to be a great inspiration to Becky - aged 10 Noah 7 and their parents. They moved on to Beijing yesterday - the Great Wall of China being their priority on this stage of their world adventure.

  • Starks

    Brill file about India

  • Lehar

    I like the way they give different captions about the text.

  • Arun Foxall?7

    This is good because my topic is about India and Ive got this website on my Kindle so I can do my homework

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    Ive been to India 3 or 4 times now and I know a lot about it, Well Done NG Kids!!

  • sienna IS BRILLIANT

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  • Surajit

    I am from India and am very proud of how far we have come since gaining independence 68 yrs ago. Thank you NG kids for the fantastic fact file.

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  • chease

    chears

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    hello

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    Cool helpful facts for my homework thanks it helped me!

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    wrestling

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  • Alina.m

    I lived in India when i was a baby. I am Indian. i know how to speak.

  • Alina.m

    I am from india and i been there this summer.

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    INDIA SOUNDS AMAZING

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  • Mishel27

    This fact file of India has a lot of information about India. Its so amazing. Incredible of the structure of Taj Mahal. It is cool.

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  • Adam Berkali

    I like Indias history.

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    I think it is a inspirational article. I cant wait till I read another one!

  • Aanya

    I am from India and and it is so much noisey

  • Becky123

    Very interesting to read!!!!

  • Bubby

    I am from India but even I have learnt more about my country:)

  • Neve0901

    I love national geographics! india is fascinating!!

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    Man this website is cool

  • Super cute

    This Fact File is cool

  • edric

    India is a very interesting country to learn about lol

  • liya

    I am from india

  • SB2

    Interesting things wrote here! Nice work!

  • Shiv

    Cool

  • A6--3

    Really like how its set out. great for schoolwork

  • Rudey2

    This is really helpful it was great revision for a test coming up in May. This is useful eventhough i am in year 12

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  • Devanshu

    I am from india

  • yolo

    I lived in India for six months

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